Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior <p><strong>The Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior (BJMB) is a publication of the Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior (<em>Sociedade Brasileira de Comportamento Motor - SOCIBRACOM</em>) since 2006. BJMB is </strong><span lang="PT-BR"><strong>a free-of-charge, quarterly, peer-reviewed, and open-access journal. </strong>It is an arbitrated journal that uses an external review system by peers who have knowledge of the objects investigated and the methodologies used in the research.</span></p> <p><span lang="PT-BR">The BJMB [ISSN: 2446-4902 (online version)] is published using the Open Journal System (OJS) technology to improve the speed, efficiency, quality, fairness, and impact of scientific publishing. The submitted manuscript must be original, unpublished, and not be under consideration by any other journal for publication. The author is the only party responsible for assertions made in his or her article. </span></p> <p><strong><span lang="PT-BR">BJMB only publishes manuscripts in English.</span></strong></p> <p><strong>There is NO charge or fee to publish in BJMB.</strong></p> <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW74348295" lang="EN-US">The first </span><span class="TextRun SCXW74348295" lang="EN-US">review of the paper will be taken in a maximum of 30 days after submission.</span></strong></p> <p> </p> <p><em>E-mail: </em></p> <p>Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior - SOCIBRACOM en-US Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior 1980-5586 <p>Authors must declare that the work submitted is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication. If the manuscript includes work previously published elsewhere, it is the author(s) responsibility to obtain permission to use it and to indicate that such permission has been granted.&nbsp;</p> <p>Authors retain the copyright of their paper and grant the Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior (BJMB) the right to first publish the work under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives license (<a href="">CC BY-NC-ND</a>). This license allows users to share the paper given the appropriate credit to the author and source and does not allow commercial uses and derivative materials to be produced.</p> Electrocortical activity prior to predictable and unpredictable stimuli requiring a motor response <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> The fronto-central slow-wave known as the contingent negative variation (CNV) is an electroencephalographic measure related to the ability of the motor system to extract spatial-temporal regularities to produce a motor response.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the levels of electrocortical activity prior to predictable and unpredictable stimuli in a motor control task, and the association between CNV and reaction time (RT).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Seventeen participants performed a task that consisted of removing the right index finger from the space bar as fast as possible after stimulus onset. All participants practiced under both a predictable (PC) and an unpredictable (UC) context. </p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Results indicated that RT under the unpredictable context was slower than under the predictable context. However, CNV levels under predictable and unpredictable contexts did not differ.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> The certainty of stimulus appearance in the UC may have produced effects similar to those under the PC, resulting in similar CNV levels. However, the use of this mechanism under the UC was suboptimal to motor performance.</p> Tércio Apolinário-Souza Juliana O. Parma Vinícius R. Carvalho Maicon R. Albuquerque Guilherme M. Lage Lidiane A. Fernandes Copyright (c) 2022 Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Juliana Otoni Parma, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Guilherme Menezes Lage, Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 240 253 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.299 An exploratory study on the effect of a four-week stroboscopic vision training program on soccer dribbling performance <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Perceptual-cognitive skill is a crucial component of expert performance in sport as expert athletes rely on the integration and processing of sensory information to execute complex actions. One of the topics of interest to skill acquisition researchers is therefore how the perceptual-cognitive system can be trained, and how that affects sport skill performance. One of the methods suggested to be able to aid in the training of perceptual-cognitive skill is restricted visual feedback training. Recently, stroboscopic vision glasses have been proposed as a tool that can restrict visual feedback during sport training and may therefore provide a useful tool for training sport-specific skills.However, despite its use in practice, evidence for the beneficial effect of stroboscopic vision on sport-specific performance across youth athletes with a range of performance levels is currently lacking.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of a four-week soccer training program with (experimental group) or without (control group) stroboscopic vision on the dribbling performance of relatively fast and slow dribblers.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> To measure dribbling performance, this study used the Ugent Soccer dribbling task.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> A Repeated Measures MANOVA revealed that four weeks of stroboscopic vision training did not improve soccer dribbling skill measured through the time taken to complete the dribbling task as well as the number of touches of the ball while dribbling.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> While stroboscopic vision can likely lead to short term changes in perceptual-cognitive skill, it is likely not related to persistent changes in soccer dribbling performance in youth soccer players.</p> Tim Palmer Aaron J. Coutts Job Fransen Copyright (c) 2022 Tim Palmer, A.J. Coutts, Job Fransen 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 254 265 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.310 Tethered force at lower limbs and swimming during a 30 s exercise bout and its association with 50 m front crawl performance <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> The capacity to produce force should be promoted especially for the fastest swimming events.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> This study aimed to analyze the effects of different test periods in mean, maximal and coefficient of force variation and to correlate the coefficient of force variation and 50m front crawl time.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Twelve well trained swimmers (age: 22.33±8.08 years, 1.69±0.48 m height, body mass 56.08±7.86 kg) randomly performed three maximal 30s repetitions of full swimming and lower limbs actions in front crawl swimming technique with ~15min resting period. A load cell system permitted the continuous measurement of exerted tethered forces, and 50m time was registered as the best time obtained at 12 months before the test.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Mean swimming force was greater at 10s compared to 20 and 30s period (26.40 [20.66-54.20], 25.33 [21.70-52.35] and 21.39 [17.91-43.98] respectively, p&lt;0.05). Mean, maximal and force coefficient variation at tethered test with full swimming were higher than lower limbs (24.37 vs. 12.71, 77.97 vs. 39.78, 0.77 vs. 0.49 respectively, p&lt;0.05). Strong and inverse correlations were noticed between coefficient of force variation at 10 s during full swimming, at 20s during kicking and performance (28.75s [26.20-30.68s];<em>r</em>=-0.75;p&lt;0.01). Very strong correlation was noticed between coefficient of force variation during swimming at 20s, 30s and performance (<em>r</em>=-0.91 and -0.92;p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Mean swimming force at full swim and lower limbs is affected by the period of the 30s maximal tethered swimming test and is associated with performance.Data reported may be used as reference for setting training strategies at short distance events.</p> Karla de Jesus Vitória de Miranda Marcos Franken Kelly de Jesus Copyright (c) 2022 Kelly de Jesus 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 266 275 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.312 The effects of a 10-minute triceps surae stretching session persist after 60 min: a randomized clinical trial <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Stretching exercises increase the joint range of motion (ROM) and depend on the skeletal tissues' exposition-time to stretch. However, it is unclear how a long stretching time affects the muscle-tendon unit's passive mechanical properties.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> This study aimed to analyze changes in the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit’s passive mechanical properties before and after a 10-minute passive stretching protocol.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Thirty healthy participants (26.57 ± 3.82 years old) were allocated into a control group (n=15), who did not perform any intervention, and to an experimental group (n=15), who performed one bout of a 10-minute ankle plantar flexor passive static stretching. Ankle ROM, plantar flexor passive torque, and myotendinous junction displacement were evaluated pre-intervention, immediately after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the end of the intervention. The stiffnesses of the muscle-tendon unit, muscle, and tendon were calculated for all moments. A generalized estimating equation test was performed to compare groups and moments.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The experimental group increased the ROM (p&lt;0.001) from pre- to post-intervention and remained augmented up to 60 minutes. The myotendinous junction displacement decreased at post-30 and post-45 moments compared to pre-intervention. Muscular stiffness increased immediately after stretching and post-45 and post-60 minutes. Passive torque and musculotendinous unit stiffness decreased over time, with trivial, small, and moderate effect sizes, respectively.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Passive static stretching (10 min) generates an acute ROM increase associated with muscle-tendon unit passive mechanical properties reduction, which lasts up to one-hour post-intervention.</p> Francesca C. Sonda Mariana O. Borges Emmanuel S. Rocha Anelize Cini Marco A. Vaz Claudia S. Lima Copyright (c) 2022 Francesca Chaida Sonda, Mariana de Oliveira Borges, Emmanuel Souza da Rocha, Anelize Cini, Marco Aurélio Vaz, Claudia Silveira Lima 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 276 290 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.292 Functional capacity components do not predict fall risk in people with Parkinson's disease <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Falls are an impactful problem for people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD), impairing the functional capacity and quality of life. Although some predictors of fall risk have been evidenced, the investigation of functional capacity components individual and combined is needed to a more detailed approach to identify fall risk prediction.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> To verify the ability of individual and combined functional capacity components in predicting fall risk in PwPD.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Ninety-six individuals participated in this cohort study. Functional capacity was assessed by Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, Six-Minute Walk, and Sit-to-Stand tests. The participants who fell at least once during the prospective follow-up of 12 months were considered fallers. A trained evaluator registered the fall’s occurrence weekly. Mann-Whitney U, t-tests, and chi-square tests were used to compare fallers versus non-fallers. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves of functional capacity components (individual and combined) were performed to predict fall risk.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Thirty-six (37.5%) PwPD were classified as fallers, being recorded 56 falls, and 60 (62.5%) as non-fallers. There are no differences in functional capacity components between groups. The combined functional capacity components were not able to predict fall risk in PwPD (area under the curve = 0.52; p = 0.77). These components were also unable to predict fall risk when analyzed individually.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Our results indicated that functional capacity components, individual and combined, are not good predictors of fall risk in PwPD. The multifactorial characteristics of falls and the falls classification might affect the fall risk prediction and should be further investigated.</p> Gabriel A. G. Moraca Diego Orcioli-Silva Victor S. Beretta Vinicius C. Zampier Paulo C. R. Santos Lilian T. B. Gobbi Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriel Antonio Gazziero Moraca, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Victor Spiandor Beretta, Vinicius Cavassano Zampier, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 291 303 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.277 The relationship between lower-limb body composition with isokinetic performance in futsal players: Body composition and performance in futsal players <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Optimal neuromuscular performance is essential for futsal athletes and it has been linked to body composition.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> The present study aimed to verify the relationship between absolute (total amount; kg) and relative (percentage; %) lower-limb and thigh lean and fat mass with isometric and dynamic maximal strength in professional futsal players.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Sixteen male elite futsal athletes participated in this study. Unilateral lower-limb and thigh lean and fat mass were evaluated using DXA (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and strength performance using unilateral isokinetic concentric-eccentric knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) peak torque (PT), KE and KF isometric PT at 30° and 70°, and hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios (H:Q).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Unilateral lower-limb lean mass amount showed a significant positive correlation with concentric and isometric KE PT (60°/s: r=0.58; 30°: r=0.55; 70°: r=0.65), and with concentric (60°/s: r=0.61), eccentric (60°/s: r=0.67) and isometric (30°:r=0.79; 70°: r=0.70) KF PT. No significant relationship between lower-limb lean and fat mass percentage with isokinetic performance was verified. Thigh lean mass amount had a significant positive correlation with concentric and isometric KE PT (60°/s:r=0.52; 30°: r=0.51; 70°: r=0.84) and also with concentric (60°/s: r=0.75) and eccentric KF PT (60°/s:r=0.54), while thigh fat mass amount was only associated with eccentric KF PT (r=0.54). No significant correlation between lower-limb and thigh body composition with H:Q ratios was observed.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> In conclusion, contrary to the relative (%) values, absolute (kg) lower-limb and thigh fat and lean mass present a significant correlation with dynamic and isometric KE and KF performance in futsal players.</p> Carlos L. F. Machado Fábio Y. Nakamura Clarissa M. Brusco Marcos X. Andrade Rodrigo Carlet Rogério C. Voser Ronei S. Pinto Copyright (c) 2022 Carlos Machado, Fábio Nakamura, Clarissa Brusco, Marcos Xavier de Andrade, Rodrigo Carlet, Rogério da Cunha Voser, Ronei Silveira Pinto 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 304 314 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.285 Photobiomodulation effects on Achilles tendon pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Achilles tendon pain is present in tendons’ non-rupture injuries usually exacerbated by mechanical loading (i.e., overuse injury).Photobiomodulation is a light therapy that may reduce pain in tendinopathy.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials tested the acute and chronic effects of photobiomodulation on Achilles tendon pain.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Randomized clinical trials were included comparing photobiomodulation with a control group in patients with Achilles tendon pain.The search included MEDLINE (Pubmed), SCOPUS, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL), LILACS, and Science Direct databases, and manual search until November 2021.The bias’s risk was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration bias risk assessment tool and PEDro scale, while the level of evidence strength by the GRADE. Quantitative analysis through meta-analyzes was performed. The protocol was registered (PROSPERO-CRD42018091509).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The search yielded 3.239 papers in the seven databases. Five studies were included after screening, eliminating duplicates, and applying eligibility criteria, and three were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis (n=79) showed no photobiomodulation acute and chronic effects compared with control group on Achilles tendon pain (p= 0.45, SMD: 0.28). In the qualitative analysis, three studies showed a high risk, and two studies a low risk of bias in all characteristics. GRADE analysis showed very low- to low-quality evidence of the studies.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> There is no photobiomodulation effect in Achilles tendon pain. Due to the very low and low strength of evidence, new studies with better methodological quality should be conducted to improve the level of evidence.</p> Emmanuel S. Rocha Esthevan Machado Francesca C. Sonda Klauber D. Pompeo Patrícia F. Santos Mariane B. Scheeren Jeam M. Geremia Marco A. Vaz Copyright (c) 2022 Emmanuel Souza da Rocha, Esthevan Machado, Francesca Chaida Sonda, Klauber Dalcero Pompeo, Patrícia Freitas dos Santos, Mariane Bernardi Scheeren, Jeam Marcel Geremia, Marco Aurélio Vaz 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 222 239 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.293 Infographic: Development of postural control Jose A. Barela Copyright (c) 2022 Jose Angelo Barela 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 209 211 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.322 MINI-REVIEW: Contribution of early intervention models to child motor development <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Early intervention (EI) is a specific service for children in early childhood (up to two years old), in which the main objective is to promote the emergence of skills or abilities.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> To identify the scientific production about EI programs and their contribution to child motor development.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> A mini-review of the literature in the PubMed, Scielo and Lilacs databases during November-December 2019, using the descriptors “early intervention” and “motor development”. Randomized clinical trials (RCT), quasi-experimental studies and case series were included. Descriptive analyses were applied.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Fourteen studies were selected. Some interventions were found to be effective: “Tummy time” (adoption of the prone position for a certain time) and the use of a treadmill for children with Down syndrome. Other results’ studies reinforced the importance of parents acting in their children’s environment and those strategies considering the insertion of the family in the intervention are able to modulate the risks to children motor development, even biological risks. The insertion of the family in early interventions was verified, highlighting the models of parental intervention and home visits.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Most EI models with positive effects on motor development are focused only on the execution of some determined technique, without considering the different aspects of the child development. However, family participation is undeniable even in these models. Strategies that show positive contribution to motor development seek to assist the family in the task of promoting environmental enrichment.</p> Tayná A. Tabosa Letícia H. M. Ferreira Kátia V. Viana-Cardoso Marcela C. Ferracioli-Gama Copyright (c) 2022 Tayná Albuquerque Tabosa, Letícia Helene Mendes Ferreira, Kátia Virgínia Viana-Cardoso, Marcela de Castro Ferracioli-Gama 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 212 221 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.271 Does the hippocampus exhibit offline reactivation of neural activity following motor sequence learning? <p style="font-weight: 400;">Memory consolidation in the declarative memory domain is known to be supported by the replay or reactivation of learning-related hippocampal activity during subsequent offline epochs (i.e., during post-encoding rest). Examinations into an analogous hippocampal reactivation process following <em>motor</em> learning have, until recently, been non-existent. This gap in the literature has been fueled by the traditional – yet outdated - view that the hippocampus is not involved in motor learning. Here, we discuss recent research in the motor memory domain that provides evidence in support of hippocampal reactivation following motor sequence learning. We conclude by highlighting several areas that warrant examination in future research, including experimentally manipulating post-learning hippocampal reactivation in an effort to enhance the motor memory consolidation process.</p> Bradley R. King Anke Van Roy Ainsley Temudo Kaitlyn Dwenger Mareike A. Gann Genevieve Albouy Copyright (c) 2022 Bradley R. King, Anke Van Roy , Ainsley Temudo, Kaitlyn Dwenger, Mareike A. Gann, Genevieve Albouy 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 16 3 206 208 10.20338/bjmb.v16i3.297